US best practices for high service valves

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US best practices for high service valves

When the severity and variety of industrial processes increase, SSVs play an increasingly important role in isolating. And controlling the various liquids used in them.

Valves can be built with cast, forged or forgings components, but for cost savings. Especially in large valves, castings are the most commonly used metal for the valve body. This paper deals with best practices for pouring and casting near netshape body parts in high alloys as defined herein as in ASME B16.34 for Group 2.8 (Duplex Grades) and higher than castings Often such as carbon and stainless steel.

It has been proposed before founding that does not provide the same consistency. And quality as wrought or forged valves components. We believe that the foundry suits suitable molding processes including heat treatment, quality assurance. And care and attention that will produce an equivalent valves or valves component.

History of valves

High-grade stainless steel castings were started in the 1930s. But in the last few decades, higher alloys and alloys became commonplace. Due to the newer technology with improved casting process, modern foundries have made it possible to accurately control the chemical composition and heat treatment suitable for valves parts. This increases the resistance to corrosion and toughness and minimizes the reaction or correction. Which reduces the cost of the valves.

SSVs are used in many applications and are very important components in process systems. In which unexpected service failures can lead to major operational problems, safety concerns, and disruptions fee. Valves performance can be very important, so all methods and processes to ensure quality. And consistency before servicing or installation are extremely important.

Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) is the main focus of this article. They are defined as two-phase (ferrite-austenitic) stainless steel. Duplex is more descriptive, where there are both stages in considerable numbers. DSS has improved corrosion and mechanical properties compared to austenitic stainless steels. So they are considered to have greater potential for extending the life of the SSV and working in harsher environments.


In the 1980s, Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) advanced and developed into Super Duplexes (SDSS). They are made to withstand harsher environments. But are more vulnerable to precipitation due to higher levels of elemental alloys. During the generation of SDSS, the formation of chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) is balanced and additional nitrogen (N) is added to increase resistance to aphids.

Duplex stainless steels are classified into four categories:

Alloys: Low Cost 23Cr-4Ni-0.1N Molybdenum (Mo) Alloys provide alternatives for ASTD A351 Class CF8 and CF8M.

Criteria 22% Cr: DSS of 22Cr-5Ni-3Mo-0.17N: These grades, including SAF Alloy 2205 (AST5 A995 4A / CD3MN), are the most common and least expensive of the two face.

High alloys: DSSs of high alloys have different compositions of Mo and Ni and copper (Cu) or Tungsten (W) alloys. ASTM A995 Class 1B / CD4MCuN This type fts.

Super Duplex 25% Cr: Super DSS Type 25 Cr-7Ni-3.5Mo-0.27N. ASTM A995 grades 5A / CE3MN and AST5 A950 grade 6A / CD3MWCuN grade

Casting process

Once the material has been selected, a sample must be designed. There are a number of steps that need to be taken to ensure the best selection and sample design.

Model building

Modeling Solid (3-D) for valves molding.

• Add small pieces to all corners of the sample and outline (need about 3 degrees to withdraw the template) if needed and discuss with the customer.

• Add casting element before cutting sample.

• Ask customers to use almost every year to determine what materials (wood, lace-board, plastic, red board, aluminum, etc.) to use. Wood is the cheapest type in low quantity, lace board / plastic / red-board for medium quantity, and aluminum / red board for bulk. The annual usage will also tell you how many to mount on a sample table. The more samples on the board will be cheaper, but the higher the sample cost.

Solid modeling is one of the greatest advances in the foundry industry. Using solid models to create solid models for setting templates removes many costly and time-consuming errors. Layout and riser configuration and positioning are made more accurate and efficient. Modeling solidification is very important for producing the highest quality castings. Many foundries have replaced costly and expensive real-time costly and error-prone experiments using solid model simulation information.

The cost benefits for using the solidification model are as follows:

• Avoid metal-molded defects arising from discomfort, disorientation, oxide and slag, spongy and shrinkage.

Figure 3: Density Analysis (CFST).

Figure 3: Density Analysis (CFST).

Optimizes the loading process to provide fast and smooth flow and is controlled.

• Save time in designing robust and size gating (metal distribution systems) and risering (metal feeding systems) in the model.

• Reduce costs from material use through productivity, quality, and energy costs.

• Reduce cycle time and maintenance costs.

• Set up quality covers to start safe and continuous production.

• Enhance security by checking operating points and through proven process conditions.

• Minimize startup costs through sample modifications.

• Improve communication in your company and partner with customers.

• Increased customer confidence through a proactive demonstration of metal casting capabilities.


Molding is producing sand mold for a rig. Molding is the shape of a plastic bonding material to form a cavity of desired shape. Such as liquid steel that can be introduced into the cavity, retaining the shape of the mold cavity after solidifying the steel, and then separated from the sand mold.

This sounds simple, but the sand mold must resist the corrosive action of the rapid flow of hot-rolled high-strength steel (1566 to 1704 ° C, 2850 to 3100 ° F) during the filling. And without Destroyed by high temperature steel until the molding is solid.

• High quality sand systems are preferred, with no water in the adhesive system.

• A high quality Zirconium cleaner will help the valves finish better.

• High density creates a better surface.

• Thermal molds to release gases in liquid metal are needed.

• Flow overlay for thick molded die pieces is a good standard practice.

• A cobalt foam filter system will prevent non-metallic materials from accessing the mold cavity. This reduces the need for further finishing such as the removal and repair of slag contaminants. Total production time and cost for casting decreased. They also minimize the liquid metal in the mold cavity, reducing the formation of degradation defects.

Main benefits:

• Improved production costs

• Reduce mold repair

• Reduced heat treatment

• Reduced processing subsidies

• shorter time

• Improved casting quality

• Reduced matter

• Lubrication

• Improved fnish surface

• Improved properties

Melting of Hot Melts occur in Electric Furnace Ovens or other types of Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD) ovens. The furnace is located on the barrel to tilt the furnace while touching the metal. The steel is melted under the influence of heat generated by its resistance to the electric current produced by the magnetic field as the current flows through the copper coil in the furnace. Once the steel reaches the desired pouring temperature, it is chiseled into a pouring pot, which is used to pour steel into the sand mold.

Based on our extensive experience, we recommend that you do the following:

• Hot melt stainless steel requires clean carbon-free lining on the furnace wall, as carbon content on many duplex steels is 0.030%.

• Metal materials must be clean and dry. No paint, oil, or any other impurities.

• Proper redox practice is required for all types of double-sided stainless steel. They are important for all valves molds to keep sound and have no porosity. This practice links the gases so they dissolve into the metal.

• Bottles should be close to the valves as possible when pouring down to reduce turbulence. This will keep the minimum amount of gas going into the mold.

• Inert gases that are melted or injected into crates reduce the accumulation of gases.

• Try to keep the chemical composition in the middle of the range to avoid any specification.

Heat Treatment

The heat treatment furnace is used to heat the steel to achieve the desired mechanical properties and reduce stress, to provide optimum corrosion resistance. It is also made to avoid difficulties in processing and finishing.

It should be noted that:

• Heat-treated DSS steel casting is one of the most important and absolutely essential parts to producing a Severe Valves service.

• Most of the DSS service harsh valves produced are cooled solutions and then immersed in water. The temperatures below are all minimum temperatures and should only be used as a path.

• No heat treatment below the recommended ASTM standard, as this will reduce corrosion resistance and reduce

• In order to avoid bending and deformation, each cast DSS must be fully supported.

Additional requirements

ASTM offers some specifications for foundry. There are two common types used for DSS – A890 and A995. Both have the same chemical requirements, tension requirements, and heat treatment requirements. The difference in the two specifications is that the liquid penetration test of the bore holes prepared for the welding will be performed to verify the removal of unacceptable interruptions by the test method. Designation for casting.

ASTM A995 also has better control over heat treatment after welding. All castings made of ASTM A995 must be heat treated after the cavities have been welded. The liquid permeant will then be completed after the heat treatment. Two recipes to produce the same castings, only check after the castings are produced may be different if specified. In our opinion, the A995 offers a definitely higher level of service for serious applications.

USA Foundries

The mission of most US foundries is to provide exceptional customer service and develop long lasting relationships with top quality, excellent customer service and on-time delivery times foreign paintings can not provide. With any current projector products, molding machines. Often it can be at our customer’s door within 12 hours if needed.

Other benefits of using foundries in the United States are:

• Sustainable labor productivity.

• Exchange rates are stable.

• Steady salary increase for staff and maintenance skills.

• The great energy advantage that the United States has captured with the use of shale gas. And improved oil recovery methods has enabled US foundries to compete globally.

• Access the highest quality valves made using the largest technology on the planet.

• Reasonable price and lifetime commitment.


Serious valves service applications require best practices in all stages of production. The casting of higher alloys as special duplexes requires, especially as they become louder and have significant mass. The experience and dedication to continuous improvement and pursuit of excellence is to provide customers with high performance SSVs.